Impact Assessment of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana - Himachal Pradesh
Chapter III - Profile of the Area & People Under Study


3.2 Kangra

Altitude 

Between 1,250 and 1,982 meters. 

Temperature 

Maximum 38 degree Celsius in June; minimum 0 degree C. in January. 

Annual Rainfall 

Varies between 290 and 380cm. Monsoon season is July to September. 

Kangra valley is the most beautiful valley of Himachal Pradesh with varying climate, flora and fauna. District Kangra is located on the southwestern end of the State and its area extends from low foothills to high wet temperate region through midhills subhumid zone. Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh is situated in Western Himalayas between 310 2 to 320 5 N and 750 to 770 45 E. The district has a geographical area of 5,739 km2 which constitutes 10.31 per cent of geographical area of the State and supports 11,74,072 human beings, 9,18,468 animals and varying species of flora and fauna. The population has increased to the tune of 18.50 to 23.70 per cent. Kangra district constitutes more than 22 per cent of total population of the State and is having 14 blocks. About 95 per cent of total population is rural and subsistent. An undue pressure on land beyond its carrying capacity is an issue of major concern.

Kangra valley located in the Northern part of Himachal Pradesh under the shadow of mighty Dhauladhar range of mountains, Dharamshala town over looks the Kangra valley. It is, located at Latitude 320 15' 42" North and Longitude 760 22' 46" of the Himalayan ranges. Geographically, the Dhauladhar range separates Kullu & Mandi Districts of the state at one end and Chamba and Kangra District at the other.

Dharamshala is one of the biggest towns as well as district headquarters of Kangra valley. Lying 526-km northwest of New Delhi, Dharamshala is the headquarters of the Kangra District in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. In 1855, Dharamshala had only two major areas where civilians settled in : McLeod Ganj, named after Lieutenant Governor of Punjab "David McLeod", and Forsyth Ganj, named after a Divisional Commissioner.

Viewed from Dhauladhar top, the hills below look like ripples on the surface of the sea. One sees an uninterrupted chain of mountains with Kangra Valley spread out at its base. Seen from the Kangra town, the Dhauladhar rises abruptly from the valley reaching 4800 mts. above the sea level. This makes ascending and descending on both sides of the mountain range extremely tough and cumbersome. While the top of the Dhauladhar Mountain is barren, its flanks after a certain height, have many villages, inhabited by the Gaddis, who rear and trade in sheep, besides engaging themselves in farming.

In 1959, the government of India decided to grant political asylum to the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatsho,. In 1960, he was allowed to make McLeod Ganj his headquarters. After his arrival, trade, commerce and tourism picked up afresh. This is because with the Dalai Lama came thousands of Tibetan refugees, who gradually settled in Mcleod Ganj.

During the last three decades, The Tibetans have built many religious, educational and cultural institutions in and around McLeod Ganj, which has helped in preservation of their culture. This has been a keen area of interest for the people around the world and as a result they flock at Dharamshala at various times.

From administrative point of view the district Kangra has been divided into eight sub-Divisions viz., Dharamsala, Palampur, Baijnath, Kangra, Nurpur, Jawali, Dehra and Jaisinghpur; and from development point of view the district stands divided in fourteen developmental blocks, viz. Baijnath, Bhawarna, Lambagaon, Panchrukhi, Kangra, Nagrota Bagwan, Rait, Dehra, Pragpur, Nagrota Surian, Nurpur, Indora, Fatehpur and Sulah at Bhedoo Mahadev. The district with respect to revenue control has been divided into fifteen Tehsils and three sub-Tehsils. There are 708 Gram Panchayats, 3869 villages and eight towns, viz. Kangra, Nagrota Bagwan, Nurpur, Dharamsala, Palampur, Dehragopipur, Jawalamukhi and Yol.

The district has varying altitude ranging from 427 to 6401m above mean sea level, with some plain areas touching Gurdaspur district of Punjab in the West and Una district of H.P. in the South. In the East it touches Mandi district, in North with Kullu and Chamba. The district has considerable diversity in its soils, physiography, land use pattern and cropping system. On the basis of these, the district has further been divided into five-sub -situations i.e. Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar, Kangra Shiwalik, Kangra Valley and Bias Basin. The agro-ecological situation varies from sub-tropical to wet / dry temperate regions. The monsoon rains are heavy and well distributed and 70 per cent of the total annual rainfall is received from July- September. The high hills of Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal receive heavy snow in winter. Summers are hot in low hill valley areas but mild in other hilly areas. More than 90 per cent of total population directly or indirectly depends upon agriculture for their livelihood.

Physiography

Kangra district comprises of four distinct regions viz. High hills Wet sub temperate region, Valley region, Chanital region and Shiwalik foot-hill region, based on topography, precipitation, irrigation facilities, soil and temperature etc. Bara Bhangal and Chhota Bhangal area in Pir Panjal ranges constitute the wet sub-temperate hilly region which initiates from the inter district boundaries of Kullu, Chamba and Mandi on the northern most end of the district. Valley region of Kangra district comprises of three-valley areas viz. Palam, Kangra and Nurpur. Palam valley includes areas enclosed within the boundary starting from Ghatta- Baijnath-Chobu-Chobin-Agojar-Maniara-Parha-Dheera-Ghanetta-Gujrehar-Darang-Jia-Bandla-Kandwari-Uttrala-Deol and Ghatta. Kangra valley includes area surrounded by Malan-Barsar-Dahd-Yol. Cantt-Khanyara-Ghro-Rehlu-Bhanala-Draman-Dobh-Tiara-Samirpur-Kangra- Sadarpur-Massal-Malan village boundaries. Nurpur valley located in the southwestern foothills touches Punjab. The area abounds Bodh-Nagawari-Hagwal-Kandrori-Thakurdwara-Ray-Sathana-Jakhara-Jawali-Luv-Jonta-Bodh. Changar region of the district comprises of the areas falling between these valleys extending upto Bias Basin. Kangra Shiwalik foothill region includes area of Pragpur block starting from Dhaliara and passing through Sansarpur Terrace-Kaswa Kotla-Bharwain-Chalali-Pirsaluhi-Chamukha-Kuhna- Sunehet-Dadaseeba-Sansarpur Terrace.

Agro-ecological Zones

Sub-mountain and low-hills sub-tropical zone

The area in this zone lies below 650m altitudes above mean sea level. The soils of this zone are shallow, light-textured and low in fertility. These are neutral in reaction with pH ranging from 6.5 to7.5. The soils are quite productive. The average rainfall is 1110 mm, of which 80 per cent is received during the rainy season i.e. July to September. Rainfed farming is mostly practiced in this zone. The important crops grown are wheat, maize, paddy, pulses and oilseeds. Citrus, mango and litchi constitute important fruit crops in this zone. The zone is characterized by three types of vegetation, viz., (i) northern dry mixed deciduous forests, (ii) dry deciduous shrubs and (iii) Shiwalik chir pine forests. Soil and water conservation are important problems of the zone. Cows and buffaloes are the main domestic animals.


Statistical Profile of Kangra District

Sl.No.

INDICATORS  (Census –2001)

NUMBER

 

 

 

1

Area ( In Sq.Kms.)

5739

2

Population

 

 

Total

1338536

 

Males

660224

 

Females

678312

 

Rural

1266362

 

Urban

72174

3

% Age of Rural Population

94.61

4

%Age of Urban Population

5.39

5

% Age of State Population

22.05

6

Decennial Growth Rate

+ 14.01

7

Sex – Ratio ( Females per 1000 Males)

1027

8

Density of Population

233

9

Literacy Rate  ( %age)

 

 

Combined

80.68

 

Males

88.19

 

Females

73.57

10

Number of Towns

9

11

Number of Constituencies

16

12

Number of CD Blocks

14

13

Number of Inhabited villages

3620

14

Number of Gram Panchayats

732

15

Number of Tahsils

14

16

Number of Sub-Tahsils

5

17

Number of Sub- Divisions

8

18

Couple Protection Rate

42.55

19

Number of Medical Institutions  as on 31-3-2003

 

 

General Hospitals

8

 

Community Health Centres   Total

13

 

Community Health Centres  Grade –I

5

 

Community Health Centres  Grade -II

8

 

Primary Health Centres         Total

78

 

Primary Health Centres         Grade- I

66

 

Primary Health Centres         Grade- II

12

 

Civil Dispensaries / ESI Disp.

2

 

Sub- Centres

434

 

Number of Beds Sanctioned

1537

20

Mid –Year Estimated Population as on 30-6-2003

1382371

 

Mid –Year Estimated Population as on 30-6-2004

1401157

 

Mid –Year Estimated Population as on 30-6-2005

1419943



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